Tag Archives: Breton

Salvador Dalì

Salvador Dalì: creative genius

 

This year, as always, we celebrate the anniversary of the birth of Salvador Dalì (1904-1989). The surrealist painter, sculptor, philosopher, chef, author, filmmaker (to name a few of his strong points), is thought by many to be one of the most creative and brilliant minds of the twentieth century.

Dalí’s mustache was already famous, but was made legendary by the vision and foresight of the great photographer, Philippe Halsman.

To read more and see many of the great artist’s works, please click here to see the full article on the maestro, posted on his birthday in 2016.


Salvador Dalì

Digital collage portrait
by Terri Maxfield Lipp
Created for
TML Arts: The Artist Birthday Series
(click image for full resolution)


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Yves Tanguy

Yves Tanguy: painter

Yves Tanguy (January 5, 1900 – January 15, 1955) was in many respects the quintessential Surrealist. A sociable eccentric who ate spiders as a party trick, and a close friend of Andre Breton, he was best-known for his misshapen rocks and molten surfaces that lent definition to the Surrealist aesthetic. Self-taught but enormously skilled, he painted a hyper-real world with exacting precision. His landscapes, a high-octane blend of fact and fiction, captured the attention of important artists and thinkers from Salvador Dalí to Mark Rothko who admitted their debt to the older artist. Even Carl Gustave Jung used a canvas by Tanguy to illustrate his theory of the collective unconscious.

Tanguy, the son of a retired navy captain, was born at the Ministry of Naval Affairs on Place de la Concorde in Paris, France. In 1918, he briefly joined the merchant navy before being drafted into the Army, where he befriended Jacques Prévert. At the end of his military service in 1922, he returned to Paris, where he worked various odd jobs. He stumbled upon a painting by Giorgio de Chirico and was so deeply impressed he resolved to become a painter himself in spite of his complete lack of formal training.

Prévert and Tanguy, c. 1919
Tanguy and Prévert, c. 1924

Through his friend Prévert, in around 1924 Tanguy was introduced into the circle of surrealist artists around André Breton. he quickly began to develop his own unique painting style, giving his first solo exhibition in Paris in 1927, and marrying his first wife, Jeannette Ducroq, later that same year. During this busy time of his life, Breton gave Tanguy a contract to paint 12 pieces a year. With his fixed income, he painted less and ended up creating only eight works of art for Breton.

"Large Painting Representing A Landscape," 1927
“Large Painting Representing A Landscape,” 1927

In December 1930, at an early screening of Buñuel and Dali’s L’Age d’Or, right-wing activists went to the lobby of the cinema where the film was being screened, and destroyed art works by Dalí, Joan Miró, Man Ray, Tanguy, and others.

“Janvier,” 1930

Throughout the 1930s, he adopted the bohemian lifestyle of the struggling artist with gusto, leading eventually to the failure of his first marriage. He had an intense affair with Peggy Guggenheim in 1938 when he went to London with his wife to hang his first retrospective exhibition in Britain at her gallery Guggenheim Jeune.

"L'ennui et la tranquilité," 1938
“L’ennui et la tranquilité,” 1938

The exhibition was a great success and Guggenheim wrote in her autobiography that “Tanguy found himself rich for the first time in his life”. She purchased his pictures Toilette de L’Air and The Sun in Its Jewel Case (Le Soleil dans son écrin) for her collection. He also painted Peggy two beautiful earrings.

Peggy Guggenheim, c. 1950, wearing earrings painted by Tanguy
Peggy Guggenheim, c. 1950, wearing earrings painted by Tanguy
"Toilette De L'Air," 1937 - originally purchased by Peggy Guggenheim, now in the Sprengel Museum, Hannover, Germany
“Toilette De L’Air,” 1937 – originally purchased by Peggy Guggenheim, now in the Sprengel Museum, Hannover, Germany
"The Sun In Its Jewel Case," 1937 - Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, Italy
“The Sun In Its Jewel Case,” 1937 – Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, Italy

The affair continued in both London and Paris and only finished when Tanguy met fellow Surrealist artist Kay Sage, who would become his second wife. After seeing and being very impressed by her work, the two began a unified and symbiotic relationship. With the outbreak of World War II, Sage moved back to her native New York, and Tanguy, judged unfit for military service, followed her. He would spend the rest of his life in the United States. Sage and Tanguy were married in Reno, Nevada on August 17, 1940.

Portrait of Yves Tanguy by George Platt Lynes, New York, 1940
Portrait of Yves Tanguy by George Platt Lynes, New York, 1940
Yves Tanguy with his wife and fellow Surrealist, Kay Sage
“The Water Seekers,” 1945

Toward the end of the war, the couple moved to Woodbury, Connecticut, converting an old farmhouse into an artists’ studio. They spent the rest of their lives there. In 1948, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. Sage and Tanguy were inseparable throughout their 15-year marriage, sharing a studio in Woodbury, Connecticut and communicating only in French in their home. Both artists sought to create paintings that the French poet André Breton called “peinture-poésie,” a style influenced by poetry and dream-like imagery.

The home of Tanguy and Sage, 35 Old Town Farm Road, Woodbury, CT - built in 1830, seen here in 2004
The home of Tanguy and Sage, 35 Old Town Farm Road, Woodbury, CT – built in 1830, seen here in 2004

In January 1955, Tanguy suffered a fatal stroke at Woodbury. His body was cremated and his ashes preserved until Sage’s death in 1963. Later, his ashes were scattered by his friend Pierre Matisse on the beach at Douarnenez in his beloved Brittany, together with those of his wife.

“Boneyard of the World — Multiplication of the Arcs,” 1954 – The last known completed painting by Tanguy, now in the The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY

“I cannot, nor, consequently, want to try to give a definition, even a simple one, to what I paint. If I did try, I would risk very much closing myself in a definition that would later become like a prison for me.” – Yves Tanguy

Edited from:


Yves Tanguy

Digital collage portrait by TMLipp
Created for The Artist Birthday Series
January 4, 1016
(click image for full resolution)

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Click the button below to let us know about typos, incorrect information, broken links, erroneous attribution,
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Hannah Höch

Hannah Höch: visual artist

Hannah Höch (November 1, 1889 – May 31, 1978) was a German Dada artist. She is best known for her work of the Weimar period, when she was one of the originators of photomontage. Her work existed to dismantle the fable and dichotomy that existed in the concept of the “New Woman”: an energetic, professional and androgynous woman, who is ready to take their place as man’s equal.

hannah-hoch-profile

Hannah Höch was born Anna Therese Johanne Höch in Gotha, Germany. Although she went to school, domesticity took precedence in her household, and in 1904 at the age of 14, Hannah was taken out of the Höhere Töchterschule in Gotha to care for her youngest sibling Marianne.

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Hannah Höch with one of her Dada dolls, c. 1920

In 1912 she began classes at the School of Applied Arts in Berlin under the guidance of glass designer Harold Bergen. She chose the curriculum glass design and graphic arts, rather than fine arts, to please her father. In 1914, at the start of World War I, she left the school and returned home to Gotha to work with the Red Cross.

hannah-hoch-p
c. 1925

In 1915 she returned to school, entering the graphics class of Emil Orlik at the National Institute of the Museum of Arts and Crafts. Also in 1915, Höch began an influential friendship with Raoul Hausmann, a member of the Berlin Dada movement. Höch’s involvement with the Berlin Dadaists began in earnest in 1917.

Höch, 1915
At 27 years old, 1915

 

Hannah Hoch, 1916
At 28 years old, 1916

It was at this time that Höch became one of the first pioneers of the art form that would come to be known as photomontage. Photomontage (or fotomontage), is a type of collage in which the pasted items are actual photographs or photographic reproductions pulled from the press or other widely produced media.

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After her schooling, she worked in the handicrafts department for Ullstein Verlag (The Ullstein Press), designing dress and embroidery patterns for Die Dame (The Lady) and Die Praktische Berlinerin (The Practical Berlin Woman). The influence of this early work and training can be seen in her later work involving references to dress patterns and textiles.

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In 1920, she participated in the First International Dada Fair, in Berlin, which took on the traditional format of an art salon, but the walls of the site were plastered with posters and photomontages. Höch was allowed to participate only after Hausmann threatened to withdraw his own work from the exhibition if she was kept out. Höch’s large-scale photomontage Schnitt mit dem Küchenmesser DADA durch die letzte weimarer Bierbauchkulturepoche Deutschlands  (English: Cut with the Kitchen Knife Through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany) (1919)—a forceful commentary, particularly on the gender issues erupting in postwar Weimar Germany—was one of the most prominently displayed and well-received works of the show. Despite her critical success, as the group’s only woman, Höch was typically patronized by and kept at the margins of the Berlin group. Consequently, she began to move away from the group, including Hausmann, with whom she broke off her relationship in 1922.

Höch (on right) with Raoul Hausmann, at the First International Dada Fair, 1920
Höch (on right) with Raoul Hausmann, at the First International Dada Fair, 1920

 

The First International Dada Fair, Berlin, 1920 (Hannah Höch, seen on far left)
The First International Dada Fair, Berlin, 1920 (Hannah Höch, seen on far left)

 

The First International Dada Fair, Berlin, 1920 (Hannah Höch, seated on left)
The First International Dada Fair, Berlin, 1920 (Hannah Höch, seated on left)

 

Schnitt mit dem Küchenmesser DADA durch die letzte weimarer Bierbauchkulturepoche Deutschlands (English: Cut with the Kitchen Knife Through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany) (1919)
Schnitt mit dem Küchenmesser DADA durch die letzte weimarer Bierbauchkulturepoche Deutschlands (English: Cut with the Kitchen Knife Through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany) (1919)

Art historian Maria Makela has characterized Höch’s personal relationship with Raoul Hausmann as “stormy”, and identifies the central cause of their altercations—some of which ended in violence—in Hausmann’s refusal to leave his wife. Hausmann continually disparaged Höch not only for her desire to marry him, which he described as a “bourgeois” inclination, but also for her opinions on art. Hausmann’s hypocritical stance on women’s emancipation spurred Höch to write “a caustic short story” entitled The Painter in 1920, the subject of which is “an artist who is thrown into an intense spiritual crisis when his wife asks him to do the dishes.”

1920
1920

 

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Höch with one of her Dada dolls, c. 1921

From 1926 to 1929 she lived and worked in the Netherlands. Höch made many influential friendships over the years, with Kurt Schwitters and Piet Mondrian among others. In 1926, she met and began a relationship with the Dutch writer and linguist Mathilda (‘Til’) Brugman, whom Höch met through Schwitters. By autumn of 1926, Höch moved to Hague to live with Brugman, where they lived until 1929, at which time they moved to Berlin. Höch and Brugman’s relationship lasted nine years, until 1935. They did not explicitly define their relationship as lesbian (likely because they did not feel it necessary or desirable), instead choosing to refer to it as a “private love relationship.”

Höch and Brugman, 1930
Höch and Brugman, 1930

While the Dadaists, including Georg Schrimpf, Franz Jung, and Johannes Baader, “paid lip service to women’s emancipation,” they were clearly reluctant to include a woman among their ranks. Hans Richter described Höch’s contribution to the Dada movement as the “sandwiches, beer and coffee she managed somehow to conjure up despite the shortage of money.” During their partnership, Raoul Hausmann even suggested that Höch get a job to support him financially. Höch was the lone woman among the Berlin Dada group, although Sophie Täuber, Beatrice Wood, and Baroness Else von Freytag-Loringhoven were also important, and decidedly overlooked, Dada figures. Höch references the hypocrisy of the Berlin Dada group and German society as a whole in her photomontage, Da-Dandy.

Da-Dandy, 1919
Da-Dandy, 1919

In 1935, Höch began a relationship with Kurt Matthies, whom she was married to from 1938 to 1944.

"Hungarian Rhapsody," 1940
“Hungarian Rhapsody,” 1940

Her work commonly combined male and female traits into one unified being. During the era of the Weimar Republic, “mannish women were both celebrated and castigated for breaking down traditional gender roles.” Her androgynous characters may also have been related to her bisexuality and attraction to masculinity in women (that is, attraction to the female form paired with stereotypically masculine characteristics).

hannah-hoch-8 screen-shot-2012-10-17-at-2-40-pm hoch1001

During World War II, Höch spent the years of the Third Reich in Berlin, Germany, keeping a low profile. She lived in Berlin-Heiligensee, a remote area on the outskirts of Berlin, hiding in a small garden house. She married businessman and pianist Kurt Matthies in 1938 and divorced him in 1944. She suffered from the Nazi’s censorship of art, and her work was deemed “degenerate art” making it even more difficult to show her works. She was even forced to hide much of her work by burying it in her yard until the war was over.

1946
1946

Though her work was not acclaimed after the war as it had been before the rise of the Third Reich, she continued to produce her photomontages and exhibit them internationally until her death at the age of 88 in 1978, in Berlin.

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Her house and garden can be visited at the annual Day of the Memorial (Tag des offenen Denkmals).

hannah-hoech-haus-2009-23


Afterword:

In the spring of 2016, my always-art-encouraging husband and I took Dada inspired trip to Switzerland and Germany, specifically to visit three separate exhibitions celebrating the 100th anniversary of the birth of the Dada movement. On May 1, we visited the Museum Haus Konstruktiv in Zurich, to visit the show DADA Differently: Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Hannah Höch, Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven curated by Sabine Schaschl, Margit Weinberg Staber, and Evelyne Bucher. It was a relatively small but perfectly presented collection of works from all three women. Having been a long time devotee of ladies of Dada, I actually burst into tears when taking Höch’s work in for the first time. Thus far, only Van Gogh and Cezanne had brought me to the point of public weeping, so this was a treat, indeed.

That same afternoon, we walked over to the Kunsthaus Zürich to see the Dadaglobe Reconstructed on its last day of exhibition in Europe (the collection was then exhibited at MOMA in New York in the United States from June 12–September 18, 2016), which contained rare pieces from Hannah Höch and others. Dadaglobe Reconstructed reunited over 100 works created for Dadaglobe, Tristan Tzara’s planned but unrealized magnum opus, originally slated for publication in 1921.

One of Hannah Höch's works in the Dadaglobe exhibition in Zurich, May 2016 - featuring a self portrait (seen on left) and portrait of Raoul Hausmann
One of Hannah Höch’s works in the “Dadaglobe: Reconstructed” exhibition in Zurich, May 1, 2016 – featuring a self portrait (seen here on the right) and portrait of Raoul Hausmann –  (photo by TMLipp)

 

View of Dadaglobe: Reconstructed, at the Kunsthaus Zürich, May 1, 2016
View of “Dadaglobe: Reconstructed,” at the Kunsthaus Zürich, May 1, 2016 (photo by TMLipp)

We then traveled to Germany and the gorgeous city of Mannheim, where the Kunsthalle Mannheim organized a large, impressive solo exhibition of Höch’s work, which we were honored to get the chance to see on May 6.  Nine large rooms held the collection, with a tenth, interactive room where one could watch a wonderful documentary about Höch’s life, or one could play with the wall of make-your-own-photomontage-Dada-contruction-from-wall-magnets (which I enjoyed immensely). The collection was comprehensive, breathtaking, and emotionally touching, and we spent hours slowly moving through the dreamland of Höch’s work.

Comprehensive exhibition of the work by Hannah Höch, Kunsthalle Mannheim (photo by TMLipp, May 6, 2016)
Exhibition of the work by Hannah Höch, Kunsthalle Mannheim, Germany (photo by TMLipp, May 6, 2016)

 

hoch-exhibition-2
Exhibition of the work by Hannah Höch, Kunsthalle Mannheim, Germany (photo by TMLipp, May 6, 2016)

 

hoch-exhibition-3
Exhibition of the work by Hannah Höch, Kunsthalle Mannheim, Germany (photo by TMLipp, May 6, 2016)

 

tmlipp-dada-selfportrait
“Self Portrait of MyDadaSelf” by TMLipp, created at the Kunsthalle Mannheim, Germany, during the exhibtion of the work by Hannah Höch. (photo by TMLipp, May 6, 2016)

 

hoch-exhibition-entry
Kunsthalle Mannheim, Germany (photo by TMLipp, May 6, 2016)

 


Edited from:


Hannah Höch, November 1, 2016

Digital collage portrait by TMLipp
Created for The Artist Birthday Series:
(click image for full resolution)

hoch-feat


TML Arts aims for accuracy in content and functionality in posts.
Click the button below to let us know about typos, incorrect information, broken links, erroneous attribution,
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Jean Arp

Jean Arp: multigenre artist

Hi there. We are on vacation from September 5th, until September 19, 2016. But the Artist Birthday Series continues! Albeit, much shorter. :)

Thank you so much for your continued interest in this project. When we return from our magical, mystery excursion...I'm sure there will ever-so-interesting be stories to be told. 

Wishing all the best of everything beautiful, delicious, and good-smelling to you. 

~ TMLipp

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Jean Arp (or the name he used in German, Hans Arp) (16 September 1886 – 7 June 1966) was a German-French sculptor, painter, poet, and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper. He was also the husband of the artist, painter, sculptor, textile designer, and dancer, Sophie Tauber-Arp.

Sophie Tauber Arp (left) and Jean Arp
Sophie Tauber Arp (left) and Jean Arp

jean-arp-in-studio1

Arp was a founding member of the Dada movement in Zürich in 1916. In 1920, as Hans Arp, along with Max Ernst and the social activist Alfred Grünwald, he set up the Cologne Dada group. However, in 1925, his work also appeared in the first exhibition of the surrealist group at the Galérie Pierre in Paris.

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This introduction to Jean Arp is edited from the full article here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Arp


TML Arts aims for accuracy in content and functionality in posts. Click the button below to let us know about typos, incorrect information, broken links, erroneous attribution, or additional relative information.

See something? Say something.


Special thanks to: Daily Artfixx, On This Day, Wikipedia, Find-A-Grave, A&E Bio, The Smithsonian American Art Museum Renwick Gallery, Famous Birthdays, Encyclopedia Brittanica, and all the art history buffs that keep the internet full of wonderful information and images.


Guillaume Apollinaire

Guillaume Apollinaire: poet, writer, artistic force

Guillaume Apollinaire (1880 – 1918) was a French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, and art critic of Polish descent. Apollinaire is considered one of the foremost poets of the early 20th century, as well as one of the most impassioned defenders of Cubism and a forefather of Surrealism.

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Wilhelm Albert Włodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki was born in Rome, Italy, and was raised speaking French, Italian, and Polish. He emigrated to France in his late teens and adopted the name Guillaume Apollinaire. His mother, born Angelika Kostrowicka, was a Polish noblewoman born near Navahrudak, Grodno Governorate (present-day Belarus). His maternal grandfather was a general in the Russian Imperial Army who was killed in the Crimean War. Apollinaire’s father is unknown but may have been Francesco Costantino Camillo Flugi d’Aspermont (born 1835), a Graubünden aristocrat who disappeared early from Apollinaire’s life.

Apollinaire at age 5 with his younger brother Albert, 1885 (Getty Images)
Apollinaire at age 5 with his younger brother Albert, 1885 (Getty Images)

 

c. 18
The young poet at College St. Charles, in Monaco, c. 1894

When Apollinaire moved from Rome to Paris, he quickly became one of the most popular members of the artistic community of Paris (both in Montmartre and Montparnasse). His friends and collaborators in that period included Pablo Picasso, Henri Rousseau, Gertrude Stein, Max Jacob, André Salmon, André Breton, André Derain, Faik Konica, Blaise Cendrars, Pierre Reverdy, Alexandra Exter, Jean Cocteau, Erik Satie, Ossip Zadkine, Marc Chagall, Marcel Duchamp and Jean Metzinger. He became romantically involved with Marie Laurencin, who is often identified as his muse.

Marie Laurencin, c. 1912
Marie Laurencin, c. 1912
Marie Laurencin (waving) holding the arm of her companion, Guillaume Apollinaire, c. 1915
Marie Laurencin (waving) holding the arm of her companion, Guillaume Apollinaire, c. 1915

In late 1909 or early 1910, Metzinger painted a Cubist portrait of Apollinaire. In his publication Vie anecdotique (October 16, 1911), the poet proudly writes: “I am honoured to be the first model of a Cubist painter, Jean Metzinger, for a portrait exhibited in 1910 at the Salon des Indépendants.” It was not only the first Cubist portrait, according to Apollinaire, but it was also the first great portrait of the poet exhibited in public, prior to others by Louis Marcoussis, Amedeo Modigliani, Pablo Picasso and Mikhail Larionov.

Portrait of Apollinaire by Jean Metzinger, 1910
Portrait of Apollinaire by Jean Metzinger, c. 1910

In 1911 he joined the Puteaux Group, a branch of the Cubist movement soon to be known as the Section d’Or. The opening address of the 1912 Salon de la Section d’Or—the most important pre-World War I Cubist exhibition—was given by Apollinaire.

La_Section_d'Or,_numero_special,_9_Octobre_1912
On 7 September 1911, police arrested and jailed him on suspicion of aiding and abetting the theft of the Mona Lisa and a number of Egyptian statuettes from the Louvre, but released him a week later. The theft of the statues was committed by a former secretary of Apollinaire’s, Honoré Joseph Géry Pieret, who had returned one of the stolen statues to the French newspaper the Paris-Journal. Apollinaire implicated his friend Pablo Picasso, who was also brought in for questioning in the theft of the Mona Lisa, but he was also exonerated. The theft of the Mona Lisa was perpetrated by Vincenzo Peruggia, an Italian house painter who acted alone and was only caught two years later when he tried to sell the painting in Florence.

Apollinaire being arrested for the theft of the Mona Lisa
Apollinaire being arrested for the theft of the Mona Lisa

 

A young Pablo Picasso was also erroneously implicated in the theft
A young Pablo Picasso was also erroneously implicated in the theft

 

The police record of Vincenzo Peruggia who attempted to steal Leonardo de Vinci's painting 'The Mona Lisa' in 1911, 25th January 1909. (Photo by Roger Viollet/Getty Images)
Police record of Vincenzo Peruggia, who stole ‘The Mona Lisa’ in 1911 (Photo by Roger Viollet/Getty Images)

 

The Mona Lisa being returned to the Louvre, 1913
The Mona Lisa being returned to the Louvre, 1913

Apollinaire was active as a journalist and art critic for Le Matin, Intransigeant, and Paris Journal. He once called for the Louvre to be burnt down.

16b955fd6d7448f223feed735c7b67afApollinaire wrote the preface for the first Cubist exposition outside of Paris; VIII Salon des Indépendants, Brussels, 1911. In an open-handed preface to the catalogue of the Brussels Indépendants show, Apollinaire stated that these ‘new painters’ accepted the name of Cubists which has been given to them. He described Cubism as “a new manifestation and high art [manifestation nouvelle et très élevée de l’art], not a system that constrains talent [non point un système contraignant les talents], and the differences which characterize not only the talents but even the styles of these artists are an obvious proof of this.”

Guillaume-Apollinaire

The artists involved with this new movement, according to Apollinaire, included Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Fernand Léger, and Henri Le Fauconnier. By 1912 other had joined the Cubists: Jacques Villon, Marcel Duchamp, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Francis Picabia, Juan Gris, and Roger de La Fresnaye, among them.

(from left to right) Francis Picabia, Gabrielle Buffet, and Apollinaire
(from left to right) Francis Picabia, Gabrielle Buffet, and Apollinaire

Apollinaire coined another art movement term, “Orphism,” at the Salon de la Section d’Or in 1912, referring to the works of Robert Delaunay and František Kupka. During his lecture at the Section d’Or exhibit Apollinaire presented three of Kupka’s abstract works as perfect examples of pure painting, as anti-figurative as music. He described Orphism as “the art of painting new totalities with elements that the artist does not take from visual reality, but creates entirely by himself. […] An Orphic painter’s works should convey an untroubled aesthetic pleasure, but at the same time a meaningful structure and sublime significance.” According to Apollinaire, Orphism represented a move towards a completely new art-form, much as music was to literature.

Example of Orphism, by Apollinaire's friend Robert Delaunay, "Simultaneous Windows on the City," 1912
Example of Orphism, by Apollinaire’s friend Robert Delaunay, “Simultaneous Windows on the City,” 1912

Apollinaire’s term “Surrealism” appeared for the first time in March 1917 (Chronologie de Dada et du surréalisme, 1917) in a letter to Paul Dermée: “All things considered, I think in fact it is better to adopt surrealism than supernaturalism, which I first used [Tout bien examiné, je crois en effet qu’il vaut mieux adopter surréalisme que surnaturalisme que j’avais d’abord employé].”

 
Apollinaire and writer/artist André Rouveyre, in 1914

He described Parade as “a kind of surrealism” (une sorte de surréalisme) when he wrote the program note the following week, thus coining the word three years before Surrealism emerged as an art movement in Paris.

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Apollinaire fought in World War I and, in 1916 received serious shrapnel wounds, one to his lung and one to the temple, from which he would never fully recover. He wrote Les Mamelles de Tirésias while recovering from this wound. He also published an artistic manifesto, L’Esprit nouveau et les poètes. Apollinaire’s status as a literary critic is most famous and influential in his recognition of the Marquis de Sade, whose works were for a long time obscure, yet arising in popularity as an influence upon the Dada and Surrealist art movements going on in Montparnasse at the beginning of the twentieth century as, “The freest spirit that ever existed.”

tumblr_koy9ypLFvD1qzn0deo1_400apollinaire-bandage

He is also known for this poetic “calligrams,” poetry that takes on a visual image in its construction.

Picasso Apollinaire Calligramme of Eiffel Tower 9eeee106d128c528fe5ecdb845bfbb61 calligrammespo00apol-56 Weakened by the wounds he received during the war, his health declined in continuation and the great poet and friend of the arts died of influenza during the Spanish Flu pandemic of 1918. He was interred in the Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris.

apollinaire ms

The day of his funeral, in a poorly timed act of political protest, people ran out into the streets shouting: “Down with Guillaume!” The chief mourners, following the casket, including his mother and many artists,  were shocked, thinking the uproar was on account of the dead poet. However the uproar was not in regard to Apollinaire, but to the German emperor Wilhelm (Guillaume in French).

Angelika Kostrowitzky, mother of Guillaume Apollinaire (c. 1885), was hurt and shocked at the misunderstanding at her son's funeral.
Angelika Kostrowitzky, mother of Guillaume Apollinaire (c. 1885), was hurt and shocked at the misunderstanding at her son’s funeral.

 

In the book, Apollinaire and the International Avant-Garde by Willard Bohn (SUNY Press, 1997), we read that writer J. Peréz-Jorba had published a moving account of Apollinaire’s funeral in the periodical La Publicidad. Describing the festive atmosphere that prevailed in Paris following the recent Armistice, he contrasted the joy of the general populace with the grief of Apollinaire’s friends:  “That day they buried Guillaume Apollinaire, who was another victim, even though indirectly, of the bellicose insanity. The flu had seized him and in the space of only six days had made mincemeat of his robust body. Apollinaire had been wounded twice at the front: one bullet perforated his lung and another struck him in the head. He had to be trepanned. But the song continued to flow in serous spurts from the fountain in the garden of his heart. Until the hour of his death.

Apollinaire_Guillaume

We attended Guillaume Apollinaire’s funeral. A few birds were chirping in the sunlight. Only tend days before, we had spoken with the great poet in Excelsior’s editorial offices. Now were were following his coffin, with an infantry lieutenant’s peaked cap on top, among an iridescent cascade of flowers. The flowers of his poems were dropping their petals in our mind.

aponaire

The funeral procession continued down the boulevard Sait-Germain. With his face of maize, Picasso presided over the occasion together with Max Jacob and Ferat. Picasso was almost cheerful. Wasn’t it best to attend your friend’s burial with a tender smile? Didn’t another great modern poet once say, with profound meaning, in a apparently offhand manner: “je ne sais rien de gai comme un enterrement” (English translation: ‘I know nothing as gay as a funeral’)?

Portrait of Apollinaire by Maurice Vlaminck
Portrait of Apollinaire by Maurice Vlaminck

The entourage included Birot, together with his better half; he was clearly preoccupied with the fact of Apollinaire’s death. His brows were furrowed. Revered was there, shivering from the cold, with a round face and soft speech. Blaise Cendrars was there with only one good arm; he lost the other one to shrapnel in the war. Madame Aurel was there and every member of the avant-garde in Paris who carries a dripping bayonet. Some soldiers from the homeguard were there as well on each side of the funeral coach, carrying their rifles underneath their arms, with their uniforms as sad as ourselves.

Apollinaire
Apollinaire, in recovery, still with the band on his head after having been trepanned.

At the cemetery no speeches were delivered, no verses were recited. The poet’s mortal remains were interred in silence. Supreme, unadorned silence. Roinard, who had brogan along who knows how many sheets of paper, was forced to keep the in their folder. This simplicity provided the note of exquisite taste that was needs to pay homage to the the best modern French poet. Best because of the newness of his fantasy; best because of his Orphic lyricism; best because of his sacred and penetrating emotion.”

guillaume-apollinaire-collection-marboeuf-alain-riviere


Edited from:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guillaume_Apollinaire

http://art-bin.com/art/aguillaumee.html


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