Henri Cartier-Bresson

Henri Cartier-Bresson: photographer

Henri Cartier-Bresson, (1908—2004) was a French photographer whose humane, spontaneous photographs helped establish photojournalism as an art form. His theory that photography can capture the meaning beneath outward appearance in instants of extraordinary clarity is perhaps best expressed in his book Images à la sauvette (1952; in English, The Decisive Moment).

Henri-Cartier-Bresson-photographer
Cartier-Bresson was born and attended school in a village not far from Paris. In 1927–28 he studied in Paris with André Lhote, an artist and critic associated with the Cubist movement. Lhote implanted in him a lifelong interest in painting, a crucial factor in the education of his vision. In 1929 Cartier-Bresson went to the University of Cambridge, where he studied literature and painting.

"Buttes-Chamont"
“Buttes-Chamont”

As a boy, Cartier-Bresson had been initiated into the mysteries of the simple “Brownie” snapshot camera. But his first serious concern with the medium occurred about 1930, after seeing the work of two major 20th-century photographers, Eugène Atget and Man Ray. Making use of a small allowance, he traveled in Africa in 1931, where he lived in the bush, recording his experiences with a miniature camera. There he contracted blackwater fever, necessitating his return to France.

Ivory Coast, 1931
Ivory Coast, 1931

The portability of a small camera and the ease with which one could record instantaneous impressions must have struck a sympathetic chord, for in 1933 he purchased his first 35-mm Leica. The use of this type of camera was particularly relevant to Cartier-Bresson. It lent itself not only to spontaneity but to anonymity as well. So much did Cartier-Bresson wish to remain a silent, and even unseen, witness, that he covered the bright chromium parts of his camera with black tape to render it less visible, and he sometimes hid the camera under a handkerchief. The man was similarly reticent about his life and work.

1933
1933, Spain

 

1933
1933, Spain

 

1933
1933, Spain

 

1933
1933, Spain

In more than 40 years as a photographer, Cartier-Bresson wandered continually around the world. But there was nothing compulsive about his travels, and he explicitly expressed a desire to move slowly, to “live on proper terms” in each country, to take his time, so that he became totally immersed in the environment.

1935, Mexico
1935, Mexico

 

1935, London
1935, London

In 1937 Cartier-Bresson produced a documentary film, his first, on medical aid in the Spanish Civil War. That year also marked his first reportage photographs made for newspapers and magazines.

Photographers Jacques Lemare, Henri Cartier-Bresson and Herbert Kline, 1937
Photographers Jacques Lemare, Henri Cartier-Bresson and Herbert Kline, 1937

 

Children playing - Spain, 1937
Children playing – Spain, 1937

 

Proud boy with wine - Spain, 1937
Proud boy with wine – Spain, 1937

 

The crowning of King George VI, 1937, London
The crowning of King George VI, 1937, London

His enthusiasm for filmmaking was further gratified when, from 1936 to 1939, he worked as an assistant to the film director Jean Renoir in the production of Une Partie de campagne (A Day in the Country) and La Règle du jeu (The Rules of the Game).

As a photographer he felt indebted to the great films he saw as a youth. They taught him, he said, to choose precisely the expressive moment, the telling viewpoint. The importance he gave to sequential images in still photography may be attributed to his preoccupation with film.

1939, New York
1939, New York

In 1940, during World War II, Cartier-Bresson was taken prisoner by the Germans. He escaped in 1943 and the following year participated in a French underground photographic unit assigned to record the German occupation and retreat. In 1945 he made a film for the U.S. Office of War Information, Le Retour, which dealt with the return to France of released prisoners of war and deportees.

 

Though Cartier-Bresson’s photographs had been exhibited in 1933 in the prestigious Julien Levy Gallery in New York City, a more important tribute was paid to him in 1947, when a one-man exhibition was held in that city’s Museum of Modern Art. In that same year, Cartier-Bresson, in partnership with the U.S. photographer Robert Capa and others, founded the cooperative photo agency known as Magnum Photos.

1951, Rome - Magnum Photos/Henri Cartier-Bresson
1951, Rome – Magnum Photos/Henri Cartier-Bresson

The organization offered periodicals global coverage by some of the most talented photojournalists of the time. Under the aegis of Magnum, Cartier-Bresson concentrated more than ever on reportage photography. The following three years found him in India, China, Indonesia, and Egypt.

1950, Egypt
1950, Egypt

 

1949, Nanjing, China - portrait of General Ma Hung Kouei
1949, Nanjing, China – portrait of General Ma Hung Kouei

 

1958, China
1958, China

 

1948, India - the funeral of Mahatma Gahndi
1948, India – the funeral of Mahatma Gahndi

This material and more, taken in the 1950s in Europe, formed the subjects of several books published between 1952 and 1956. Such publications helped considerably to establish Cartier-Bresson’s reputation as a master of his craft. One of them, and perhaps the best known, Images à la sauvette, contains what is probably Cartier-Bresson’s most comprehensive and important statement on the meaning, technique, and utility of photography. The title refers to a central idea in his work—the decisive moment—the elusive instant when, with brilliant clarity, the appearance of the subject reveals in its essence the significance of the event of which it is a part, the most telling organization of forms. Later books include Cartier-Bresson’s France (1971), The Face of Asia (1972), and About Russia (1974).

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1944, portrait of Matisse
1944, portrait of Matisse

 

1944, Matisse painting
1944, Matisse painting

He was singularly honored by his own country in 1955, when a retrospective exhibition of 400 of his photographs was held at the Museum of Decorative Arts in Paris and was then displayed in Europe, the United States, and Japan before the photographs were finally deposited in the Bibliothèque Nationale (National Library) in Paris. In 1963 he photographed in Cuba; in 1963–64, in Mexico; and in 1965, in India. The French filmmaker Louis Malle recalled that, during the student revolt in Paris in May 1968, Cartier-Bresson appeared with his 35-mm camera and, despite the explosive activities, took photographs at the rate of only about four per hour.

1968, Paris - student protest
1968, Paris – student protest

 

1968, Paris - student protest
1968, Paris – student protest

 

1968, Paris - Henri Cartier-Bresson photographed by Alain Nogues during the student protests
1968, Paris – Henri Cartier-Bresson photographed by Alain Nogues during the student protests

In the late 1960s Cartier-Bresson began to concentrate on making motion pictures—including Impressions of California (1969) and Southern Exposures (1971). He believed that still photography and its use in pictorial magazines was, to a large extent, being superseded by television. On principle, he always avoided developing his own prints, convinced that the technical exigencies of photography were a harmful distraction. Similarly, he directed the shooting of films and did not wield the camera himself. With this medium, however, he was no longer able to work unobtrusively by himself. Cartier-Bresson devoted his later years to drawing.

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His Leica—his notebook, as he called it—accompanied him wherever he went, and, consistent with his training as a painter, he always carried a small sketch pad. There was for Cartier-Bresson a kind of social implication in the camera. To his mind, photography provided a means, in an increasingly synthetic epoch, for preserving the real and humane world.

Henri_Cartier-Bresson

Cartier-Bresson died on August 3, 2004, at the age of 95. He was buried in the Cimetière de Montjustin, in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France.

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Edited from:

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henri-Cartier-Bresson


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